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Loose Change, section three

Table of contents
Section one
World Trade Center missiles
Marc Birnbach
Operation Northwoods
NASA's fuel research
The tower in the crosshairs
Raytheon's Global Hawk
NORAD's drills
A new Pearl Harbor?
Pentagon MASCAL and Charles Burlingame
Hijacking directives
Ashcroft's chartered jets
Osama in Dubai with the CIA
Larry Silverstein
Put options
Bomb-sniffing dogs
Canceled flights
Willie Brown
Osama's urologists
NRO's exercise
NORAD's war games
Section two
Rumsfeld's quote
Russ Wittenberg
Hani Hanjour
A military plane?
Light poles
The lawn
Flight 77 wreckage
Wings would rip off outside
The engines
More wreckage
The diffuser case
The wheel hub
Airplane outlines
Blown off the highway?
Helios Airways
Pentagon damage
Intact windows
Cable spools
Ring C and the nose
A cruise missile?
Eyewitness accounts
April Gallop
Cordite
Planes seen after the crash
Second explosion and fireball
Surveillance tapes
The mark on the lawn
Renovation and Rumsfeld
Section three
World Trade Center explosions
WTC 7's sudden collapse
The Empire State Building
Skyscraper fires
Order of collapses
Free fall
The experts
More explosions
Brief light sources
Ginny Carr
Willie Rodriguez
Hermetically sealed
FDNY interviews
Mike Pecoraro
Louie Cacchioli
FDNY recordings
Orio Palmer
Controlled demolition
Seismic data
Molten steel
Explosions seen during collapses
The shaking tripod
How the explosives got there
Marvin Bush, Securacom and the SEC
Overseas recycling yards and FEMA
Controlled Demolition and fuel reserve tanks
Section four
Flight 93 didn't crash
Wally Miller
Nigerian plane crash
Flight 93 landed in Cleveland
Flight 93 was shot down
The white plane
The physical evidence
Osama's quotes
Black boxes and passports
Flight 93 still exists
The cell phone calls
Project Achilles
The hijackers
Osama's confession tape
The gold vault
The Patriot Act
Conclusion
Resources

World Trade Center explosions

Avery shows us this quote:

"There were explosions going off everywhere. I was convinced that there were bombs planted all over the place and someone was sitting at a control panel pushing detonator buttons. There was another explosion. And another. I didn't know where to run."

-Teresa Veliz, working on the 47th floor of the North Tower when Flight 11 hit.

However, Teresa Veliz was apparently describing the sound of the South Tower collapsing, not the impact of Flight 11. Acres of office space slamming into each other and hundreds of thousands of tons of steel and concrete breaking and falling 1,000 feet just might make some very loud noises. Not all explosions are caused by bombs, and one person's particularly vivid description of what the collapse sounded like does not constitute conclusive evidence.

WTC 7's sudden collapse

Avery claims WTC 7 suddenly collapsed later in the evening. However, the collapse was not sudden, as firefighters were concerned about the possibility of a collapse:

Firehouse: Other people tell me that there were a lot of firefighters in the street who were visible, and they put out traffic cones to mark them off?

Hayden: Yeah. There was enough there and we were marking off. There were a lot of damaged apparatus there that were covered. We tried to get searches in those areas. By now, this is going on into the afternoon, and we were concerned about additional collapse, not only of the Marriott, because there was a good portion of the Marriott still standing, but also we were pretty sure that 7 World Trade Center would collapse. Early on, we saw a bulge in the southwest corner between floors 10 and 13, and we had put a transit on that and we were pretty sure she was going to collapse. You actually could see there was a visible bulge, it ran up about three floors. It came down about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, but by about 2 o'clock in the afternoon we realized this thing was going to collapse.

Firehouse: Was there heavy fire in there right away?

Hayden: No, not right away, and that's probably why it stood for so long because it took a while for that fire to develop. It was a heavy body of fire in there and then we didn't make any attempt to fight it. That was just one of those wars we were just going to lose. We were concerned about the collapse of a 47-story building there. We were worried about additional collapse there of what was remaining standing of the towers and the Marriott, so we started pulling the people back after a couple of hours of surface removal and searches along the surface of the debris. We started to pull guys back because we were concerned for their safety.

Firehouse: Jay Jonas told me that at one point, when he had finally made his way out of the debris, you were standing on top of a truck?

Hayden: Yes. It was covered in debris. I got on top of the rig only to establish a presence there. There was a lot of confusion, a lot of chaos. That was my command post in that sector. I stood on top of the rig and people could see who I was, that there was a chief in charge and that people could come to me and I'd give them assignments. It worked. I didn't realize it at the time, but it worked. People could point, there's the chief over there, rather than out of all this chaos and destruction, where was there a command post? You couldn't even make out West Street. So I saw the rig. I got on top of the rig and I stayed there. And eventually we got a bullhorn, a radio. I had a bullhorn and we were able to get some type of order in the assignments and what we were doing. We tried to get some type of accountability. I gathered everybody around me. There were hundreds of guys and there was a lot of confusion. I had everybody take their helmets off for a moment of silence, and it calmed everybody down. Then, I said, please assist the chief officers in getting some accountability here. Whether you're on duty or off duty, give them your name, your unit, and give it in to the chiefs. The chiefs made up a list and I had started getting a list of who I had working on the site there, also. It was just an attempt to gain some kind of control.

Firehouse: So you were able to move forward a little bit at that point?

Hayden: At that point. And then also when I got everybody around. I didn't know how many chiefs I had there. I just told them what we're going to do, we're going to split this up into companies. I did it by getting them to stop and take their helmets off for a moment of silence.Once I had the moment of silence, then I started giving out the orders to everybody about what we're going to do. After that, we had some type of organization. That's the only way I could have done it. I couldn't think - I needed help. It was a desperate measure.

Firehouse: Chief Nigro said they made a collapse zone and wanted everybody away from number 7— did you have to get all of those people out?

Hayden: Yeah, we had to pull everybody back. It was very difficult. We had to be very forceful in getting the guys out. They didn't want to come out. There were guys going into areas that I wasn't even really comfortable with, because of the possibility of secondary collapses. We didn't know how stable any of this area was. We pulled everybody back probably by 3 or 3:30 in the afternoon. We said, this building is going to come down, get back. It came down about 5 o'clock or so, but we had everybody backed away by then. At that point in time, it seemed like a somewhat smaller event, but under any normal circumstances, that's a major event, a 47-story building collapsing. It seemed like a firecracker after the other ones came down, but I mean that's a big building, and when it came down, it was quite an event. But having gone through the other two, it didn't seem so bad. But that's what we were concerned about. We had said to the guys, we lost as many as 300 guys. We didn't want to lose any more people that day. And when those numbers start to set in among everybody... My feeling early on was we weren't going to find any survivors. You either made it out or you didn't make it out. It was a cataclysmic event. The idea of somebody living in that thing to me would have been only short of a miracle.

Firehouse Magazine, April 2002

Firehouse: Did that chief give an assignment to go to building 7?

Boyle: He gave out an assignment. I didn't know exactly what it was, but he told the chief that we were heading down to the site.

Firehouse: How many companies?

Boyle: There were four engines and at least three trucks. So we're heading east on Vesey, we couldn't see much past Broadway. We couldn't see Church Street. We couldn't see what was down there. It was really smoky and dusty.

Before we took off, he said, look, if you see any apparatus, strip the apparatus for hose, nozzles, masks, anything you can get. As we headed east, we reached Church and then we were midway from there and then all of a sudden, we could see 5 come into view. It was fully involved. There was apparatus burning all over the place. Guys were scrambling around there. There were a lot of firemen, and there was a lot of commotion, but you couldn't see much that was going on. I didn't see any lines in operation yet. But we found a battalion rig there. We got a couple of harnesses out of there. We had some bottles from another rig, so we put together a couple of masks.

We went one block north over to Greenwich and then headed south. There was an engine company there, right at the corner. It was right underneath building 7 and it was still burning at the time. They had a hose in operation, but you could tell there was no pressure. It was barely making it across the street. Building 6 was fully involved and it was hitting the sidewalk across the street. I told the guys to wait up.

A little north of Vesey I said, we'll go down, let's see what's going on. A couple of the other officers and I were going to see what was going on. We were told to go to Greenwich and Vesey and see what's going on. So we go there and on the north and east side of 7 it didn't look like there was any damage at all, but then you looked on the south side of 7 there had to be a hole 20 stories tall in the building, with fire on several floors. Debris was falling down on the building and it didn't look good.

But they had a hoseline operating. Like I said, it was hitting the sidewalk across the street, but eventually they pulled back too. Then we received an order from Fellini, we're going to make a move on 7. That was the first time really my stomach tightened up because the building didn't look good. I was figuring probably the standpipe systems were shot. There was no hydrant pressure. I wasn't really keen on the idea. Then this other officer I'm standing next to said, that building doesn't look straight. So I'm standing there. I'm looking at the building. It didn't look right, but, well, we'll go in, we'll see.

So we gathered up rollups and most of us had masks at that time. We headed toward 7. And just around we were about a hundred yards away and Butch Brandies came running up. He said forget it, nobody's going into 7, there's creaking, there are noises coming out of there, so we just stopped. And probably about 10 minutes after that, Visconti, he was on West Street, and I guess he had another report of further damage either in some basements and things like that, so Visconti said nobody goes into 7, so that was the final thing and that was abandoned.

Firehouse: When you looked at the south side, how close were you to the base of that side?

Boyle: I was standing right next to the building, probably right next to it.

Firehouse: When you had fire on the 20 floors, was it in one window or many?

Boyle: There was a huge gaping hole and it was scattered throughout there. It was a huge hole. I would say it was probably about a third of it, right in the middle of it. And so after Visconti came down and said nobody goes in 7, we said all right, we'll head back to the command post. We lost touch with him. I never saw him again that day.

We ended up getting back to the command post at Broadway and Vesey. By that time, there were probably 50 officers standing in a row. And I was like, I'm not going to stand on another line like that. So we came down with Fox. I knew Fox was somewhere. So we found out that Fox was over at Cortlandt and Church. They were putting a tower ladder into operation, so we made our way over to there. We ended up helping.

They had no pressure at all off of any of the hydrants from Broadway. He was asking if there was any way that we could do anything at Broadway or West. From Broadway to West westward toward Church Street there was no pressure at all. We spotted one of the squads up on Cortlandt over by Broadway and he was hooked up to a hydrant, and it was running. There was nobody there. I don't know which squad it was, but you know they were in there. We were just sitting there, so we stretched the line off of him. We relayed it to 274, who relayed it to another engine down the street and eventually we got more pressure. I think it was 22 Truck on Church and Cortlandt and they were operating to number 5.

We did that for a little while. It took a while to get the hose there because there was a White Plains company helping us and they had some different fittings. So we got water to 22, but then that's when they said all right, number 7 is coming down, shut everything down. I don't know what time that was. It was all just a blur.

Firehouse: Did they shut the tower lines and remove them from there?

Boyle: No, just left them. Everything was left where it was. Just shut everything down, moved everybody back.

Firehouse: Could you see building 7 again from there?

Boyle: Seven, no. You got a half block away, you couldn't see it, couldn't see a damn thing. All we heard was they were worried about it coming down, everybody back away. We ran into the people running around for water for the eyes because everybody's eyes were burned and I don't know who they were. I think it was the doctor and some other people. They were just running around, washing people's eyes out.

We were there about an hour or so until number 7 came down and everything was black again.

Firehouse Magazine, August 2002

Avery tells us WTC 7 contained CIA, Department of Defense, IRS and Secret Service offices, as well as Rudy Giuliani's emergency bunker, and an SEC office with 3,000-4,000 files regarding Wall Street investigations. Apparently it's suspicious that the SEC would keep files in its Northeast Regional Office. Strangely, the other 11 offices weren't destroyed. Government agencies weren't the only tenants of WTC 7, there were several banks, and Salomon Smith Barney took up 18 floors.

Avery says every single building surrounding WTC 7 stood intact, while it fell straight down into a convenient little pile in 6 seconds. However, the Verizon building at 140 West Street next to WTC 7 was severely damaged by the collapse of the towers and WTC 7:

Because of its close proximity and the devastating nature of the collapse of World Trade Center Towers 1 and 2, the south face of 140 West Street was extensively damaged, with entire column bays destroyed as high as the 13th story. To the east, a mere 60 feet away, stood the 47-story 7 World Trade Center. When 7 WTC collapsed later that same day, it fell to the west, causing even more structural damage to the eastern portions of the first 9 floors housing Verizon's most critical equipment. The burning rubble from its remains piled 7 stories high against and through the east facade. While the sturdy Verizon building remained standing, extreme damage was suffered in the surrounding streets by the collapsed steel and concrete, severely damaging Verizon's underground cable vaults and severing incoming Con Edison feeders, DC power and steam service, domestic water mains, and sanitary sewage piping.

Additionally, Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway across the street from WTC 7 was so badly damaged it has to be demolished. WTC 7 did not fall straight down, it fell to the southwest. The pile was neither little nor convenient; it took over 8 months to clean up the World Trade Center site with crews working 24 hours a day. And while the collapse appeared to take about 6 seconds, seismic readings recorded an event lasting for 18 seconds. WTC 7's east mechanical penthouse on top of the building fell into it several seconds before the total collapse:

~5:21:03 p.m. Approximately 30 seconds later, Figure 5-21 shows the east mechanical penthouse disappearing into the building. It takes a few seconds for the east penthouse to "disappear" completely.

~5:21:08 p.m. Approximately 5 seconds later, the west mechanical penthouse disappears (Figure 5-22) or sinks into WTC 7.

~5:21:09 p.m. Approximately 1 or 2 seconds after the west penthouse sinks into WTC 7, the whole building starts to collapse. A north-south "kink" or fault line develops along the eastern side as the building begins to come down at what appears to be the location of the collapse initiation (see Figures 5-23 and 5-24).

~5:21:10 p.m. WTC 7 collapses completely after burning for approximately 7 hours (Figure 5-25). The collapse appeared to initiate at the lower floors, allowing the upper portion of the structure to fall.

In the recut, Avery claims the official explanation is that falling debris from the towers created a fire which ignited several fuel tanks in the building. However, this is currently an unconfirmed hypothesis that the NIST is still investigating.

The Empire State Building

Avery says that in 1945, a B-52 bomber crashed into the Empire State Building, killing 14 and causing $1 million in damage but leaving the building intact. This is impossible, as the B-52 didn't enter production until the '50s. The actual plane was a B-25, and Avery corrects this in the recut. Unfortunately, this also undermines his entire point. Let's compare these planes:

B-25767-200
(Flight 175)
767-200ER
(Flight 11)
B-52
Wingspan (ft)67'6"156'1"156'1"185'0"
Length (ft)52'11"159'2"159'2"159'4"
Max. takeoff weight (lbs)35,000300,000395,000452,000
Cruise speed (mph)230530530526
Fuel capacity (gal)67016,70023,98046,000

The B-25 is much, much smaller than a 767. Furthermore, the Empire State Building and the World Trade Center towers were not built alike. The Empire State Buiding has concrete-encased steel columns arranged in a grid configuration on every floor, which doesn't leave many open areas. The World Trade Center towers had exterior steel columns connected to the core columns by lightweight steel trusses, with large amounts of open floor space. A B-25 crashing into the Empire State Building is vastly different than 767s crashing into the WTC towers, and comparing these events is pointless.

Skyscraper fires

Avery claims WTC 7 was the third building in history to collapse due to fire, the first two being the towers. These weren't the only firsts of September 11. It was also the first time large commercial planes were intentionally flown into skyscrapers at high speeds, and the first time two 110-story buildings collapsed in the immediate vicinity of WTC 7. He tells us that a fire broke out between the 9th and 14th floors of the North Tower in 1975. However, the fire was mostly confined to the 11th floor and a cable shaft, and firefighters had complete access to it. Additionally, a plane had not crashed into the building, and structural columns were not severed.

Avery says a 62-story skyscraper in Los Angeles burned for 3 hours with the fire spreading over 4 floors, but did not collapse. This was the First Interstate Bank building, and the fire was fought the entire time. Its spray-on fire protection was of very good quality, and the building had not sustained damage from plane impacts or nearby skyscraper collapses.

Avery tells us that a 38-story skyscraper in Philadelphia burned for over 19 hours with the fire spreading to 8 floors, and did not collapse. The building was One Meridian Plaza, and structural damage indicated the possibility of a collapse:

Prior to deciding to evacuate the building, firefighters noticed significant structural displacement occurring in the stair enclosures. A command officer indicated that cracks large enough to place a man's fist through developed at one point. One of the granite exterior wall panels on the east stair enclosure was dislodged by the thermal expansion of the steel framing behind it. After the fire, there was evident significant structural damage to horizontal steel members and floor sections on most of the fire damaged floors. Beams and girders sagged and twisted -- some as much as three feet --under severe fire exposures, and fissures developed in the reinforced concrete floor assemblies in many places. Despite this extraordinary exposure, the columns continued to support their loads without obvious damage

All interior firefighting efforts were halted after almost 11 hours of uninterrupted fire in the building. Consultation with a structural engineer and structural damage observed by units operating in the building led to the belief that there was a possibility of a pancake structural collapse of the fire damaged floors.

Avery says a 56-story skyscraper in Venezuela burned for over 17 hours with the fire spreading to 26 floors and reaching the roof, but did not collapse. This was the east tower of the Parque Central Complex in Caracas, and firefighters in the building were evacuated after fears it would collapse:

At 7 a.m., some of the booster pumps started to malfunction, and the fire regained intensity, spreading vertically at a rate of about one floor per hour until approximately 10 a.m. Around 11 a.m., the fire breeched the fifth macroslab, below the 39th floor, and around noon, the stairwells' fire enclosure started to fail. Concerned that the building might collapse, the fire chief immediately ordered that interior firefighting operations be abandoned.

Avery tells us about Madrid's Windsor Building, a steel-reinforced concrete building which burned for nearly 24 hours, destroying its upper 10 floors without causing the building itself to collapse. Here's a picture of the Windsor Building after the fire:

Windsor Building after fire

The Windsor Building had a concrete core with a concrete frame supporting the first 16 stories and steel perimeter columns for the upper floors, which collapsed while leaving the concrete core standing. Further collapse was prevented by the 17th floor, a concrete "technical floor" used to strengthen the building.

If buildings aren't supposed to collapse because of fires, why would firefighters and structural engineers be worried about the possibility of collapse during these fires? Why did Avery cite an instance of the steel portion of a building completely collapsing due to fire if he's trying to prove it's impossible? Why is spray-on fireproofing even used on steel beams if there's no risk of them failing when attacked by fire? When comparing these fires, why doesn't Avery take into account the damage to the WTC towers caused by large planes crashing into them, or the 20-story hole in the side of WTC 7?

Avery continues, telling us that the WTC towers burned for 56 and 103 minutes over 4 floors before completely collapsing. He gives us the construction details of the towers, and claims the government would have us believe they were destroyed by 10,000 gallons of jet fuel. However, he fails to take into account where the jet fuel that ignited the fires came from: large planes crashing into the buildings at high speeds and greatly damaging their support structures, which were further weakened by the fire.

Order of collapses

Avery claims Flight 175 barely hit the southeast corner of the South Tower, with the majority of its jet fuel exploding outside in the fireball. He finds it odd that the South Tower collapsed first when the North Tower was struck head-on and had been burning for 18 minutes longer. First, Flight 175 completely entered the South Tower; it did not "barely hit" the corner at all. Avery even shows us a video of the impact before he makes that claim. Second, the majority of the jet fuel did not explode outside the building:

The precise size of the fireballs and their exact shapes are not well defined; therefore, there is some uncertainty associated with estimates of the amount of fuel consumed by these effects. Calculations indicate that between 1,000 and 3,000 gallons of jet fuel were likely consumed in this manner.

1,000 to 3,000 gallons is not a majority of 10,000 gallons. Third, Flight 175 hit the South Tower at around 590 mph, whereas Flight 11 hit the North Tower at about 470 mph. An impact at a higher speed carries more force and causes more damage. The South Tower was struck between floors 78 and 84, compared to the North Tower which was struck between floors 94 and 98. The damaged area of the South Tower was supporting a substantially greater load. 10 core columns in the South Tower were severed by the impact, as opposed to 6 in the North Tower. The severed core columns in the South Tower were mainly in the southeast corner of the core, placing a more uneven load on the damaged area. The portion of the South Tower above the impact zone tilted southeast as the building collapsed:

The South Tower beginning to collapse

Additionally, the spray-on fireproofing in the impact zone of the South Tower was only half as thick as the fireproofing in the impact zone of the North Tower:

The average thickness of spray-applied fireproofing on the trusses was 3/4 inch. In the mid-1990s, a decision was made to upgrade the fire protection by applying additional material onto the trusses so as to increase fireproofing thickness to 1-1/2 inches. The fireproofing upgrade was applied to individual floors as they became vacant. By September 11, 2001, a total of 31 stories had been upgraded, including the entire impact zone in WTC 1 (floors 94-98), but only the 78th floor in the impact zone in WTC 2 (floors 78-84).

Free fall

Avery claims the WTC towers fell at free fall speed, and uses Galileo's law of falling bodies to calculate a collapse time of 9.2 seconds. He shows a video of the South Tower collapsing, and starts a clock which ends at around 10 seconds. However, at the time he begins the clock, the collapse has already started, and the upper portion of the South Tower is leaning to the right. Video evidence indicates that the North Tower took substantially longer than 10 seconds to fall, and photographs taken during the collapses show that ejected debris, which was actually traveling at nearly free fall speeds, falls faster than the bulk of the buildings. Here's a picture of the South Tower during its collapse:

The South Tower as it collapsed

And the North Tower:

The North Tower as it collapsed

The towers couldn't have fallen at free fall speed if debris falling at free fall speed was falling faster. Avery then claims the steel in the towers was shattered into sections no more than a couple feet long. However, this is completely false. Compare the steel wreckage in this photo to the backhoes, trucks, and other vehicles:

The WTC site on September 13, 2001

Unless that construction equipment is only a few inches long, the steel wreckage is much larger than a couple of feet. Avery then asserts that all 425,000 cubic yards of concrete were pulverized into dust, but no evidence is provided to support this.

The experts

Avery asks what brought down the World Trade Center, and decides to ask the experts. The first expert cited is Van Romero, Vice President for Research at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Avery provides these quotes:

"My opinion is, based on the videotapes, that after the airplanes hit the World Trade Center there were some explosive devices inside the buildings that caused the towers to collapse."

"The [collapses were] too methodical to be a chance result of airplanes colliding with the structures."

Avery then provides this quote from ten days later:

"Certainly the fire is what caused the building to fail."

He asks what would make Romero change his mind so suddenly, and leaves this question unanswered. Notably, Avery has not actually asked him anything, as he did with Marcel Bernard. If he did, he may have found an answer:

Demolition expert Romero regrets that his comments to the Albuquerque Journal became fodder for conspiracy theorists. "I was misquoted in saying that I thought it was explosives that brought down the building," he tells PM. "I only said that that's what it looked like."

Romero, who agrees with the scientific conclusion that fire triggered the collapses, demanded a retraction from the Journal. It was printed Sept. 22, 2001. "I felt like my scientific reputation was on the line." But emperors-clothes.com saw something else: "The paymaster of Romero's research institute is the Pentagon. Directly or indirectly, pressure was brought to bear, forcing Romero to retract his original statement." Romero responds: "Conspiracy theorists came out saying that the government got to me. That is the farthest thing from the truth. This has been an albatross around my neck for three years."

Avery then cites Hyman Brown, a civil engineering professor and construction manager for the WTC, and provides these quotes:

"It was over-designed to withstand almost anything, including hurricanes, high winds, bombings, and an airplane hitting it."

"Although the buildings were designed to withstand a 150 year storm, and the impact of a Boeing 707, jet fuel burning at 2000 degrees weakened the steel."

The buildings did withstand the impact, they didn't collapse immediately after being hit. Avery then cites Kevin Ryan, a former Underwriters Laboratories worker, and claims UL certified the steel used in the World Trade Center. This is incorrect:

The company told The Tribune "there is no evidence" that any firm tested the materials used to build the towers.

"UL does not certify structural steel, such as the beams, columns and trusses used in World Trade Center," said Paul M. Baker, the company's spokesman.

Avery quotes a letter Ryan wrote to Frank Gayle of the NIST:

"We know that the steel components were certified to ASTM E119. The time temperature curves for this standard require the samples to be exposed to around 2000 °F for several hours. And as we all agree, the steel applied met those specifications. Additionally, I think we can all agree that even un-fireproofed steel will not melt until reaching red-hot temperatures of nearly 3000 °F. Why Dr. Brown would imply that 2000 °F would melt the high-grade steel used in those buildings makes no sense at all. This story just does not add up. If steel from those buildings did soften or melt, I'm sure we can all agree that this was certainly not due to jet fuel fires of any kind, let alone the briefly burning fires in those towers."

First, ASTM E119 is not meant to predict the performance of steel components in a fire:

b. The ASTM E119 Standard Fire Test was developed as a comparative test, not a predictive one. In effect, the Standard Fire Test is used to evaluate the relative performance (fire endurance) of different construction assemblies under controlled laboratory conditions, not to predict performance in real, uncontrolled fires.

[...]

The existing prescriptive fire resistance rating method (ASTM E119) does not provide sufficient information to determine how long a building component can be expected to perform in an actual fire. A method of assessing performance of structural members and connections as part of a structural system in building fires is needed for designers and emergency personnel.

Second, steel doesn't have to completely melt to be weakened. Most steels lose over half their strength at 600 °C (1112 °F), far below 3,000 °F. Third, jet fuel was not the only combustible present, and it likely burned off within minutes:

The time to consume the jet fuel can be reasonably computed. At the upper bound, if one assumes that all 10,000 gallons of fuel were evenly spread across a single building floor, it would form a pool that would be consumed by fire in less than 5 minutes (SFPE 1995) provided sufficient air for combustion was available. In reality, the jet fuel would have been distributed over multiple floors, and some would have been transported to other locations. Some would have been absorbed by carpeting or other furnishings, consumed in the flash fire in the aerosol, expelled and consumed externally in the fireballs, or flowed away from the fire floors. Accounting for these factors, it is believed that almost all of the jet fuel that remained on the impact floors was consumed in the first few minutes of the fire.

As the jet fuel burned, the resulting heat ignited office contents throughout a major portion of several of the impact floors, as well as combustible material within the aircraft itself.

Avery says Ryan's statements directly contradict statements from "so-called experts", and that Ryan was fired from his position days after writing the letter. He fails to mention that Ryan's position was at a water testing facility. Avery concludes that not even the experts agree with each other, based on quotes from only three people.

More explosions

Avery asks what else could have caused the towers and WTC 7 to collapse, and shows a series of news clips from the day of the attacks. Various reporters say the collapse of the South Tower almost looked like a planned implosion set off by a demolition team. This is just a description of how it appeared; events that look similar do not necessarily have the same cause. An unidentified person reports hearing another explosion in one of the towers from a lower level, and that there were two explosions in the same building. If it was a controlled demolition, why would an explosive device be set off a while before the collapse, and not immediately before it? Another unidentified person states that federal agencies believed there was an explosive device somewhere else in the buildings outside the impact zones. No detail is given on who these federal agencies were, or if evidence of any explosive device was ever actually found. Another reporter, Pat Dawson, says he talked to Albert Turi, the FDNY Chief of Safety, who received word of the possibility of a secondary device and tried to evacuate firefighters. No information is given on who Turi heard this from, or whether these suspicions were eventually confirmed or not. Dawson then states that Turi said there was another explosion an hour after the first plane impact, and that he speculates there were devices planted in the building. An hour after Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower would be about 13 minutes before the South Tower collapsed, and 42 minutes before the North Tower collapsed. What would be the purpose of detonating an explosive device at this time? Secondary explosions are common in fires, and Turi was merely speculating.

Avery plays an unattributed voiceover of someone saying there were two or three explosions which caused the building to shake at its base. No context is given, making this quote mostly useless. A large plane crashing into a building will likely cause it to shake, though. He then plays a clip of a man who witnessed an elevator exploding, and another clip of a man who saw a large explosion on the eighth floor. If there was a controlled demolition, what would be the purpose of blowing up an elevator, or the eighth floor? The eighth floor and elevator explosions must have occurred before the collapses, as the men who witnessed it escaped in time, and the collapses didn't initiate on the eighth floor.

Avery then plays several clips of people describing the collapses and explosions that occurred at the time. Again, not all explosions are caused by bombs. They can also be caused by large, heavy floors falling onto each other, blasting out the contents between them as empty space is removed.

Brief light sources

Avery cites an eyewitness who saw about six flashes between floors 10 and 15 of the South Tower, accompanied by crackling noises, immediately before the collapse. Yet the South Tower's collapse did not begin on those floors, making this account irrelevant to how it collapsed. Additionally, the sole source of this account is an article from the American Free Press, written by Christopher Bollyn.

Ginny Carr

Avery plays an audio tape recorded by Ginny Carr, who was on the 36th floor of One Liberty Plaza at the time of the North Tower impact. A similar, quieter sound is audible about nine seconds after the impact, which Avery claims is an explosion. If it was an explosion, what makes him think it was caused by anything other than the large plane that just crashed into the building? The North Tower didn't collapse until 102 minutes later; why would an explosive charge or other device be set off immediately after the impact?

Willie Rodriguez

Avery presents the testimony of William Rodriguez, a janitor who was in the basement of the North Tower when it was struck. Rodriguez heard a loud "boom" in the basement, followed by another from far above. Sound travels faster through steel than air. A severely burned man came to his office, saying there was an explosion from the elevators. This is noted in the 9/11 Commission Report:

North Tower. A jet fuel fireball erupted upon impact and shot down at least one bank of elevators. The fireball exploded onto numerous lower floors, including the 77th and 22nd; the West Street lobby level; and the B4 level, four stories below ground.

[...]

Operations. A battalion chief and two ladder and two engine companies arrived at the North Tower at approximately 8:52. As they entered the lobby, they encountered badly burned civilians who had been caught in the path of the fireball. Floor-to-ceiling windows in the northwest corner of the West Street level of the lobby had been blown out; some large marble tiles had been dislodged from the walls; one entire elevator bank was destroyed by the fireball.

Rodriguez states that when he talked about these explosions, they told him it was probably from gas canisters in the building's kitchens, which shouldn't be there because it was a class A building. We aren't told who "they" are, or when he asked about this, so the incorrectness of "their" explanation is of little value.

Hermetically sealed

Avery tells us that the windows of the North Tower's lobby were blown out, and marble panels were blown off the walls. He claims this was "brushed off" as damage from a fireball that traveled down an elevator shaft. However, this is an explanation which fits the available evidence, and is not "brushing off" anything. He then asserts that the cores and elevator shafts of the towers were hermetically sealed (airtight), and that the fireball couldn't have had enough oxygen or energy to travel down the elevator shaft and destroy the bottom 8 floors of the building. He presents no evidence that the elevator shafts and cores of the towers were airtight, and the only information provided on his website is a link to Wikipedia's article on "Hermetically sealed". Additionally, the bottom 8 floors of the North Tower were not destroyed, and the North Tower began collapsing at the impact zone, not its lower floors.

FDNY interviews

Avery plays an interview from a documentary by the Naudet brothers, in which several firefighters describe the towers collapsing floor by floor, and compare it to a demolition. This is a description; just because they said it looked like a demolition doesn't mean it was a demolition. If Avery found these firefighters and asked them whether they believe the towers were demolished by explosives, their answers probably wouldn't be useful to his theory.

He plays more interviews with individual firefighters, who describe damage to the lobby, saying it looked like a bomb had exploded. This is another description, and is not necessarily what happened. One firefighter says the freight elevator was "blown". This is consistent with jet fuel traveling down an elevator shaft, as the building's freight elevator serviced all floors:

In addition to normal freight service one freight elevator in each of the towers will serve a total of 112 stops from the fifth basement to the 108th floor. It will rise 1,387 feet (422.8 meters) - 400 feet (122 meters) more than the former record rise in the Empire State Building.

Another firefighter describes an explosion heard on the 30th floor. Avery still has not presented a reason for bombs to be set off in the lower floors of the towers, long before the collapses, which did not initiate at the lower floors.

Mike Pecoraro

In the first edition only, Avery claims there was no soot or fuel in the lobby, just a fine white dust, which he believes is the "signature of high explosives". Less than a minute later, he presents the testimony of Mike Pecoraro, who was in the sixth sub-basement of the North Tower at the time of the first impact. Avery quotes Pecoraro as saying "the whole lobby was soot and black", a direct contradiction of his earlier claim. Pecoraro was actually there, whereas Avery was not.

Avery also quotes Pecoraro as saying a machine shop on C level and a parking lot were gone, replaced by rubble. However, he doesn't mention that Pecoraro smelled kerosene (jet fuel):

They had been told to stay where they were and "sit tight" until the Assistant Chief got back to them. By this time, however, the room they were working in began to fill with a white smoke. "We smelled kerosene," Mike recalled, "I was thinking maybe a car fire was upstairs", referring to the parking garage located below grade in the tower but above the deep space where they were working.

Louie Cacchioli

Avery claims Louie Cacchioli, a firefighter who took other firefighters to the 24th floor to assist with evacuations, told People Weekly that a bomb went off on the last trip, and that he thinks there were bombs set in the building. This account, from an admittedly questionable site, seems to indicate otherwise:

Furthermore, Cacchioli was upset that People Magazine misquoted him, saying "there were bombs" in the building when all he said was he heard "what sounded like bombs" without having definitive proof bombs were actually detonated.

In this testimony from the New York Times, Battalion Chief Dennis Kenahan states that the explosion was the South Tower collapsing:

After we found the elevator, the other companies went up and we were the last load to go up. On the second-to-last load, the guy that was operating the elevator told me that they wanted one of our guys, since we were a five-man engine, to operate the elevator and since there was only one truck. So I looked over and my control man was kind of a junior man so I asked the senior man working to take the elevator.

He entered the elevator with the last company that went up. They went up to the 24th floor or the 22nd floor and the company was getting off. I think it was the truck company at that time, because he grabbed the last guy getting out, who was the irons man and he said, "You gotta stay with me, because I need tools in the elevator."

At that time, the doors closed and that's when the power went out. Which, what we found out later was when the south tower fell down. They were able to force their way out of the elevator and for some reason the guy from the truck, from 13 truck, went to the right and he went to the left and found a stairwell and he was able to make it out.

Q. Who is "he"?

A. Louie Cacchioli.

911myths.com's Quote Abuse page was helpful in locating this information.

FDNY recordings

Avery claims the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey blocked the release of a tape of firefighters' transmissions from the day of the attacks until November of 2002, and asks why it took so long for it to be released. He doesn't give any possible reasons for why they kept it, or evidence that they actively attempted to prevent its release. If their intention was to hide it, why would they release it?

He plays several excerpts of the firefighters' transmissions, but no times or context are provided, making it difficult to tell what was going on at the time. In the first excerpt, a firefighter describes an explosion on floors 7 and 8, which would be irrelevant to claims of controlled demolition because neither building collapsed from that point. More excerpts describe another explosion and a secondary explosion, which is typical in large fires. After this, there are descriptions of people covered in dust from a secondary explosion, and of a major explosion and complete collapse of Tower 2. The South Tower collapse was initially reported as an explosion, and it becomes apparent that this was what the firefighters were referring to.

Orio Palmer

Avery presents a recording of Battalion Chief Orio Palmer, who had reached the 78th floor of the South Tower. On the tape, Palmer says:

Battalion 7, ladder 15. We've got two isolated pockets of fire. We should be able to knock it down with two lines. Radio that, 78th floor. Numerous 10-45 code ones.

Avery claims that if the 78th floor was a "raging inferno, like the government would have us believe", Palmer wouldn't have gotten that far or been able to put it out. However, the 78th floor was not a raging inferno by any means, as it sustained relatively light damage compared to the floors above it. Additionally, the government made no such claim. From the NIST's Reconstruction of the Fires in the World Trade Center Towers:

6.5.1 Floor 78

There was only light fire activity observed on the 78th floor, and this behavior is reflected in the numerical simulation. The impact analysis (NIST NCSTAR 1-2) predicted that a small amount of jet fuel was released on this floor. Given the modest number of window openings and the estimated light core damage, the numerical simulation of the fire did not predict any areas of significant temperatures. Most of the observed missing windows were broken out upon impact.

Furthermore, Palmer wouldn't have had a clear view of the entire conflagration, which spanned several acre-sized floors.

Controlled demolition

Avery says firefighters described two events consistent with controlled demolition. The first is bright flashes from inside the building, the second is crackling sounds before the buildings collapsed. While playing clips of actual controlled demolitions, which don't look like the collapses of the towers at all, he displays these quotes:

"I saw low-level flashes. [Lieutenant Evangelista] asked me if I saw flashes in front of the building, and I agreed with him because I saw a flash flash flash and then it looked like the building came down."

-Stephen Gregory, Commissioner of the Bureau of Communications.

"You know like when they demolish a building, how when they blow up a building, when it falls down? That's what I thought I saw."

-Stephen Gregory, Commissioner of the Bureau of Communications.

"Somewhere around the middle of the WTC there was this orange and red flash ... initially it was just one then [it] just kept popping all the way around the building and [it] started to explode."

-Captain Karin deShore, Battalion 46

"As far as I could see these popping sounds and the explosions were getting bigger going both up and down and then all around the building"

-Captain Karin deShore, Battalion 46

These quotes are incomplete and misleading. Here's more of Gregory's testimony:

Q. Do you recall at any time, particularly when you were on West Street, any companies whose vehicles may have been parked near where you were?

A. No. I know I was with an officer from Ladder 146, a Lieutenant Evangelista, who ultimately called me up a couple of days later just to find out how I was. We both for whatever reason -- again, I don't know how valid this is with everything that was going on at that particular point in time, but for some reason I thought that when I looked in the direction of the Trade Center before it came down, before No. 2 came down, that I saw low-leve] flashes. In my conversation with Lieutenant Evangelista, never mentioning this to him, he questioned me and asked me if I saw low-level flashes in front of the building, and I agreed with him because I thought -- at that time I didn't know what it was. I mean, it could have been as a result of the building collapsing, things exploding, but I saw a flash flash flash and then it looked like the building came down.

Q. Was that on the lower level of the building or up where the fire was?

A. No, the lower level of the building. You know like when they demolish a building, how when they blow up a building, when it falls down? That's what I thought I saw. And I didn't broach the topic to him, but he asked me. He said I don't know if I'm crazy, but I just wanted to ask you because you were standing right next to me. He said did you see anything by the building? And I said what do you mean by see anything? He said did yc.u see any flashes? I said, yes, well, I thought it was just me. He said no, I saw them, too.

I don't know if that means anything. I mean, I equate it to the building cowing down and pushing things down, it could have been electrical explosions, it could have been whatever. But it's just strange that two people sort of say the same thing and neither one of us talked to each other about it. I mean, I don't know this guy from a hole in the wall. I was just standing next to him. i never met the man before in my lite. He knew who was I guess by my name on my coat and he called me up, you know, how are you doing? How's everything? And, oh, by the way did you... It was just a little strange.

If someone who was actually there isn't completely sure of what they saw, why is Avery so confident? Here's more of Deshore's testimony:

After I bandaged everybody up and everybody was sort of calm in the location. Like I said, maybe 10, 12 people now. Now I also had two elderly females that were a part of that business there. So we had maybe 12 individuals. I went outside to see what I could do, when I saw the second building of the World Trade Center, still unbeknown to me the first one had collapsed.

Somewhere around the middle of the World Trade Center, there was this orange and red flash coming out. Initially it was just one flash. Then this flash just kept popping all the way around the building and that building had started to explode. The popping sound, and with each popping sound it was initially an orange and then a red flash came out of the building and then it would just go all around the building on both sides as far as I could see. These popping sounds and the explosions were getting bigger, going both up and down and then all around the building.

I went inside and I told everybody that the other building or there was an explosion occurring up there and I said I think we have another major explosion. I don't know if we are all going to be safe here. I told them I can't force you, but I don't know if we are going to be safe here. I'm going to try to get as far away from this building as possible. Unbeknown to me, a half a block down was the water.

It seems pretty obvious that she's describing the collapse of a tower. Orange and red flames shot out as the building collapsed, snapping steel beams and bolts can make popping noises, and dust clouds traveling upwards and downwards surrounded the building. See it for yourself.

Seismic data

Avery asks what science has to say about the collapses, while showing us the front page of the American Free Press. Apparently this passes as science. He says the collapses were picked up by Columbia University's observatory in Palisades, with the South Tower registering as a magnitude 2.1 earthquake, and the North Tower as magnitude 2.3. He says Won-Young Kim told Christopher Bollyn of the AFP that their seismographs pick up underground explosions from a quarry 20 miles away, which are caused by 80,000 lbs. of ammonium nitrate and create local earthquakes between magnitude 1 and 2. Does he believe the earthquakes at the World Trade Center were caused by 80,000 lbs. of explosives, and not buildings weighing hundreds of thousands of tons collapsing to the ground?

He continues, claiming that during the collapse, most of the energy of the debris was absorbed by the towers and the neighboring structures, converting them into rubble and dust or causing other damage, but not causing significant ground shaking. This is a quote from Arthur Lerner-Lam, who disagrees with the possibility of controlled demolition:

"There is no scientific basis for the conclusion that explosions brought down the towers," Lerner-Lam tells PM. "That representation of our work is categorically incorrect and not in context."

Personally, I find a seismologist's opinion on seismological events to be more reliable than Christopher Bollyn's interpretation.

Molten steel

Avery quotes the aforementioned American Free Press article again, highlighting these sections of it in a way that makes it appear to be actual newsprint:

In the basements of the collapsed towers, where the 47 central support columns connected with the bedrock, hot spots of "literally molten steel" were discovered more than a month after the collapse. Such persistent and intense residual heat, 70 feet below the surface, in an oxygen starved environment, could explain how these crucial structural supports failed.

These incredibly hot areas were found "at the bottoms of the elevator shafts of the main towers, down seven [basement] levels," Loizeaux said.

The molten steel was found "three, four, and five weeks later, when the rubble was being removed," Loizeaux said. He said molten steel was also found at 7 WTC, which collapsed mysteriously in the late afternoon.

First, Mark Loizeaux never saw the molten steel:

Mr. Bryan:

I didn't personally see molten steel at the World Trade Center site. It was
reported to me by contractors we had been working with. Molten steel was
encountered primarily during excavation of debris around the South Tower
when large hydraulic excavators were digging trenches 2 to 4 meters deep
into the compacted/burning debris pile. There are both video tape and still
photos of the molten steel being "dipped" out by the buckets of excavators.
I'm not sure where you can get a copy.

Sorry I cannot provide personal confirmation.

Regards,
==========================

Mark Loizeaux, President
CONTROLLED DEMOLITION, INC.
2737 Merryman's Mill Road
Phoenix, Maryland USA 21131
Tel: 1-410-667-6610
Fax: 1-410-667-6624
www.controlled-demolition.com

Second, there is no evidence that the molten metal was actually steel, or that any tests were performed on it to determine its composition. It could have easily been another metal with a lower melting point, such as aluminum, which was used on the WTC's facade. Furthermore, are explosives used in demolition supposed to leave molten metal that smolders for weeks?

Avery continues quoting the AFP article, and states that highest temperature was in the east corner of the South Tower, where a temperature of 1377 °F was recorded, and that the molten steel in the basement was more than double that temperature. However, no indication is given that the temperature of the molten metal was ever actually measured. Additionally, the highest recorded temperature exceeds the melting point of aluminum, 1220 °F, making molten aluminum a distinct possibility.

Explosions seen during collapses

Avery asks if we still think jet fuel brought down the World Trade Center, which is a massive oversimplification of the heavy structural damage compounded with large fires started by the jet fuel. He claims that in the videos of the collapses, explosions can be seen 20 to 30 stories below the "demolition wave". He plays several clips of the collapses in slow motion, and zooms in on puffs of dust emitted from the towers as they collapsed. They appear on seemingly random floors, near the center of each side of the building. This is not how controlled demolitions are conducted. A handful of small, limited explosions on a few floors of a 110-story skyscraper would not be sufficient to completely destroy it. If these bursts were the result of demolition explosives, they should have been far more numerous and organized, especially considering the size of the buildings.

The shaking tripod

Avery states that Étienne Sauret caught both collapses on tape while filming WTC: The First 24 Hours, and shows a clip of the North Tower collapse. He claims the camera's tripod shakes 12 seconds (9 seconds in the first edition) before the collapse, and that something is knocked off the right side of the building. The first and most obvious problem is that Étienne Sauret is a man, although this is corrected in the recut. The shaking of the tripod could have been caused by someone adjusting it or bumping into it, and the piece of debris is quite small, even when Avery zooms in. In this video, debris can be seen falling from the South Tower several seconds before its collapse. If the jittery tripod and tiny piece of falling debris were supposedly caused by controlled demolition, what kind of demolition explosive can shake a camera in another building and knock loose one small piece, but not cause the building itself to collapse for another 9 or 12 seconds?

How the explosives got there

Avery speculates on how demolition explosives could have been placed in the World Trade Center complex without anybody noticing. He claims Ben Fountain, a financial analyst who worked at the WTC, told People Magazine that in the weeks before the attacks, a number of unannounced and unusual drills took place, and sections of both the towers and WTC 7 were evacuated for security reasons. While he's saying this, he shows us a screenshot of this web page. It's located at prisonplanet.com, a site run by Alex Jones, who believes, among other things, that the world is secretly run by the Freemasons and Illuminati and vaccines are contaminated with cancer viruses. Ben Fountain's actual quote mentions nothing about both towers and WTC 7 being evacuated:

Ben Fountain, 42, a financial analyst with Fireman's Fund, was coming out of the Chambers Street Station, headed for his office on the 47th floor of the south tower.

How could they let this happen? They knew this building was a target. Over the past few weeks we'd been evacuated a number of times, which is unusual. I think they had an inkling something was going on.

Avery then mentions the story about the bomb-sniffing dogs being removed from the building again. However, this would conflict with his hypothesis of the evacuations and drills in the weeks before the attacks being used as opportunities to plant demolition explosives. Were two 110-story buildings and one 47-story building rigged with explosives in the five days after the dogs were removed, without anyone noticing?

In the first edition only, Avery presents the story of Scott Forbes, who worked for Fiduciary Trust in the South Tower. He claims Forbes told Victor Thorn of WingTV that his company was given three weeks advance notice that the Port Authority of New York would shut off power in the South Tower from the 48th floor upward in order to perform a cabling upgrade to increase the WTC's bandwidth. He states that a powerdown had never occurred before, and due to the electricity being shut off, security cameras, ID systems, and elevators to the upper floors were inoperative. He also claims there were plenty of engineers who had free access to the building due to its security system being "knocked out", and that video cameras atop the towers were inoperative on the day of the attacks. There are many reasons to question this account. It originates from a questionable source, and is only corroborated by two other questionable sources: An interview from Killtown, another conspiracy theorist, and an interview with someone by the name of "George Washington". In these interviews, several elements of his story have changed. Instead of a bandwidth upgrade, the powerdown was to work on power supplies:

KT: What did the Port Authority say the power down was for?

SF: As far as I recall it was for re-cabling, though I don't remember the wording on official documents or the detail, as I wasn't in the Management Loop.

KT: What did they say the "re-cabling" was for?

SF: I understood it was something to do with the power supplies.

Forbes is also less certain about the scope of the powerdown:

GW: How do you know that there was no electricity from floor 50 up, if Fiduciary Trust was on much higher floors -- starting at the 90th floor?

SF: I can't absolutely verify that there was no power on lower floors ... all I can validate is that we were informed of the power down condition, that we had to take down all systems and then the following day had to bring back up all systems ...

And he changes the duration of the outage from 36 hours to around 26 hours, in the same interview:

KT: Why were you working the weekend before 9/11?

SF: Because of a "power down" notified by the Port Authority. Power was being switched off for a 36hr period in the top half of tower and as I work for a Financial Institution and Bank in the Technology Group I was working on the shutdown and eventually the startup of all our systems.

KT: Back to the weekend of the "power down," when did they turn the power off and when did they turn it back on?

SF: Off on Saturday afternoon - around 12 noon I think - and back on at about 2 pm on the Sunday (my timings on this are hazy).

At best, Forbes' account is inconsistent and unreliable; at worst, a falsification. In any case, it is irrelevant, as is Ben Fountain's testimony. Rigging three skyscrapers for demolition without anyone noticing during relatively brief evacuations and powerdowns would be impossible. The demolition of the 30-story Landmark Tower in Fort Worth, Texas took four months to prepare:

The button to bring down the 30-story office tower at Seventh and Houston streets, one of the tallest buildings ever to be imploded, will be pushed at 8 a.m., said John Angelina president of D.H. Griffin of Texas, a Houston company that has served on the demolition team, which also includes Midwest Wrecking in Fort Worth.

Crews have been working feverishly this week on the final preparations on work that began in November.

"We'll work as hard today as we have in the last four months," Brian Choate, Midwest Wrecking's chief executive, said Thursday.

And this was without having to keep it all hidden from bomb-sniffing dogs and thousands of workers.

Marvin Bush, Securacom and the SEC

Avery asks who authorized all those things, and tells us Marvin Bush, George W. Bush's brother, was on the board of directors at Securacom from 1993 to fiscal year 2000. He claims Securacom provided security for the World Trade Center since the early 1990s up to the day of the attacks. This seems to be his way of indirectly accusing Marvin Bush of authorizing powerdowns, drills and evacuations at the World Trade Center without actually having any evidence to support this. Why would someone on the board of directors plan the details of special security procedures for the World Trade Center complex? Did he somehow plan all this before he left in 2000? Securacom only did security work for the WTC from 1996 to 1998:

Securacom got the $8.3 million World Trade Center security contract in October 1996 and received about $9.2 million from the WTC job from 1996 (a quarter of its revenues that year) to 1998. But in 1998, the company was "excused from the project" because it could not fulfill the work, according to former manager Al Weinstein, and the electronic security work at the WTC was taken over by EJ Electric, a larger contractor.

Avery continues, telling us that Securacom, now known as Stratesec, is backed by Kuwait-American Corporation (KuwAm), and also provided security for United Airlines and Dulles International Airport. However, their contract with Dulles only lasted from 1995 to 1998:

One of Stratesec's biggest security contracts was with the Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority, to provide electronic security for Dulles and Reagan airports. The company got its first preventive-maintenance contract with Dulles airport in 1995 and received about $6.3 million in revenue from the Dulles project between 1995 and 1998.

Stratesec did not handle passenger screening at Dulles, where one of the 9/11 jets was hijacked. According to Dave Swennes, a contracting official for the Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority, its three-year contract was for maintenance of security systems. The company maintained the airfield access system, the closed circuit television system and electronic badging.

And their work with United Airlines ended in the 1990s:

Securacom/Stratesec also handled some security for United Airlines in the 1990s, according to McDaniel, but it had been completed before his arriving on the board in 1998.

Avery says Marvin Bush was also the director of HCC Insurance Holdings, which insured parts of the World Trade Center. Why would an insurance company want to destroy a complex of buildings that it insures? This would not be profitable at all, and HCC had a net loss of $30 million as a result of the disaster. Avery claims more information on this was supposed to be disclosed but never was, and the SEC has not revealed what they've learned. His only apparent source is this revision of Wikipedia's article on Marvin Bush, which is referring to something else entirely:

Marvin sat on the boards of both HCC and Securacom/Stratesec at the same time, and both companies had a commercial interest in the World Trade Center complex. This information is required to be disclosed through SEC proxy filings but was not. The proxy for Stratesec also omitted Marvin Bush's directorship at Fresh Del Monte Produce (FDP), a company run by Mohammed Abu-Ghazaleh, who has a business background in several middle eastern countries, including Dubai and Kuwait. No SEC investigations into the omission of the required proxy disclosures are publicly known.

Overseas recycling yards and FEMA

Avery says we could figure out what happened if we examined the debris, but Rudolph Giuliani began shipping the remains to overseas recycling yards before investigators could examine it. He claims FEMA wasn't allowed access to the site, and that they blocked off a crime scene and destroyed all the evidence. However, the debris has been examined. FEMA's World Trade Center Building Performance Study has an entire appendix about workers finding and retrieving structural steel from salvage yards:

As of March 15, 2002, a total of 131 engineer visits had been made to these yards on 57 separate days. An engineer visit typically ranged from a few hours to an entire day at a salvage yard. The duration of the visits, number of visits per yard, and the dates the yards were visited varied, depending on the volume of steel being processed, the potential significance of the steel pieces being found, salvage yard activities, weather, and other factors. Sixty-two engineer trips were made to Jersey City, 38 to Keasbey, 15 to Fresh Kills, and 16 to Newark. Three trips made in October included several ASCE engineers. Eleven engineer trips were made in November, 41 in December, 43 in January, 28 in February, and 5 through March 15, 2002.

And the NIST performed a mechanical and metallurgical analysis with these steel samples:

A total of 236 recovered pieces of WTC steel were cataloged; the great majority belonging to the towers, WTC 1 and WTC 2. These samples represented a quarter to half a percent of the 200,000 tons of structural steel used in the construction of the two towers. The NIST inventory included pieces from the impact and fire regions, perimeter columns, core columns, floor trusses, and other pieces such as truss seats and wind dampers.

The original, as-built locations of 42 recovered perimeter panels and 12 recovered core columns were determined, based on markings and geometry of the columns. Samples were available of all 12 strength levels of perimeter panel steel, the two strength levels of the core column steel that represented 99 percent of the total number of columns, and both strength levels used in the floor trusses.

A number of structural pieces were recovered from locations in or near the impact- and fire-damaged regions of the towers, including four perimeter panels directly hit by the airplane and three core columns located within these areas. These pieces provided opportunity for failure and other forensic analyses.

The collection of steel from the WTC towers was sufficient for determining the quality of the steel and, in combination with published literature, for determining mechanical properties as input to models of building performance.

According to Dr. W. Gene Corley, head of the WTC Building Performance Assessment Team, recycling was not a problem:

There has been some concern expressed by others that the work of the team has been hampered because debris was removed from the site and has subsequently been processed for recycling. This is not the case. The team has had full access to the scrap yards and to the site and has been able to obtain numerous samples. At this point there is no indication that having access to each piece of steel from the World Trade Center would make a significant difference to understanding the performance of the structures.

Avery's assertion that nobody had the opportunity to examine the evidence because it was destroyed is entirely false.

Controlled Demolition and fuel reserve tanks

Avery tells us Controlled Demolition Inc. was allowed into the WTC site, and was also responsible for cleaning up after the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. He claims Controlled Demolition demolished two 400-foot fuel reserve tanks from the WWII era on July 15, 2001 for no apparent reason, and that the site remains vacant to this day and the reason for the demolition has never been disclosed. First, CDI was retained by Tully Construction, one of four contractors performing the cleanup of the site. Employing the services of a company that deals with collapsed buildings to clean up collapsed buildings makes perfect sense. Second, there was a reason for the demolition of the fuel reserve tanks:

Representatives of KeySpan Energy, various city agencies, and a demolition company presented plans for the demolition of the two large gas tanks located near the intersection of Vandervoort and Maspeth avenues. The tanks have stood empty since the mid 1990s, and, according to a representative of KeySpan, which owns the property, the company has been planning the demolition for approximately two years. During a heated question and answer period, local residents questioned safety procedures and the delay in community notification.

According to Cathy Sevos, a community affairs officer at KeySpan, the tanks, which were built in 1927 and 1948, are being demolished because their age presents health and safety risks, they are costly to maintain, and they are obsolete due to the use of pipelines and other new technology.

Third, what does any of this have to do with the World Trade Center? Did CDI demolish two structures that were radically different than the WTC buildings just for practice? Avery makes no attempt to integrate this into the rest of his theory.

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